Toxic Plants (Deep Dive R32)
Cardiac Glycoside containing plants : Foxglove, Lilly of the Valley, Oleander, Squill
* Contain cardiac glycosides, which act as a negative chronotrope as well as a positive inotrope.* Patients present with nausea, vomiting, visual changes, bradycardia/arrhythmia, and may develop hyperkalemia – a poor prognostic factor* Treatment is Digibind/DigiFAB – look out for the side effects of hypokalemia as well as anaphylaxis.
Anticholinergic Alkaloid containing plants: Jimson Weed, Angels Trumpet, Deadly Nightshade
* Contain alkaloids that act as anticholinergics ; often used recreationally* Patients present with delirium/hallucinations, pupillary dilation, anhydrosis, hyperthermia, skin flushing, urinary retention* Treatment is support care, with physostigmine for severe cases – remember to go low and slow!
* Important to distinguish between acute onset symptoms (6hours) or delayed onset (6-24 hours)* Inocybe : acute onset ; cholinergic crisis; treat with atropine* Amanita Muscarina: acute onset; CNS toxicity – delrium, myoclonus, seizures ; supportive care and benzos as needed* Amanita Phalloides: delayed onset ; treat with NAC and maybe Silibinin* Phase 1: 6-24 hrs after ingestion, nausea vomiting diarrhea* Phase 2: transient recovery, 24-60 hours after ingestion* Phase 3: Hepatic / multisystem organ failure* Gyromitra: delayed onset; causes acute B6 deficiency leading to refractory seizures, treat with pyridoxine (vitamin B6) as well as usual seizure care.
Stone Heart Syndrome – LITFL
Gyromitra – Indiana Poison Center
Anticholinergic Intoxication – EMCrit